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history of Crete

neolithic

6000 BC people from Africa and Turkey came here. They dealt with soil cultivation and animal husbandry. They built houses of split stone and dried clay.

pre-palace period

About 3000 B.C. bronze and a potter's wheel began to be used. The dead were buried. The first two-story palaces built of bricks and dried clay were built.

the period of the older palaces

About 2,000 B.C. multi-story palaces with large courtyards began to be built in Knossos, Festos and Malia. Early hieroglyphic writing began to be used, slowly giving way to linear script A. This period ends with a powerful earthquake in 1700 BC.

the period of younger palaces - the Minoan era

After the earthquake, the island developed tremendously. Many-story, heavily ornamented palaces were built. Trade with Sicily, Egypt and the Middle East flourished. Gold, silver, tin and copper were imported in exchange for oil, honey, ceramics and weapons. There are no city fortifications from that period, so people lived in harmony. Linear writing was used. In 1628 B.C.E. a volcanic eruption took place on the nearby island of Santorini, which partially devastated the island.

Mycenaean period

The Mykene took over part of the island. Trade began to give way to defense against attackers. Fortresses were built. The Mycenaeans introduced a linear type B script, which is considered the beginning of modern Greek writing. The destruction of the Palace of Knossos in 1,200 BC ends the Mycenaean period.

geometric period

In 1,000 B.C.E. the Dorians came to the island with new customs. A military hierarchy was introduced. Iron began to be used to make weapons. Geometric patterns began to be used in ceramics. The burial of the dead has ceased. Burning bodies has spread. Settlements were established on the slopes of the mountains, each of which had its own port. In this way, city-states, or polis, were created.

archaic period

Around 620 B.C.E. Crete was divided into small city-states, or polis.

the period of ancient Greece and Rome

In the 5th century BC Crete did not participate in the events in Athens. It did not stand up against Persia, nor did it take part in the Peloponnesian War. The Persians and the king of Sparta took refuge here during the wars with Athens.

In Gortyn, twelve statutes were written down on stone tablets, very progressive for those times. They were called the Legal Code of Gortyn. They said, among other things, that a slave could marry a free woman and their children were free. The position of women has also been increased. The rival largest centers in Knossos and Gortyn tried to share Crete. However, they encountered resistance from smaller towns.

Around 200 B.C.E. Rome began to stand up for Crete. In 69 BC the island became their province.

In 59 CE The Apostle Paul came here. Rome was against Christianity. About 250 C.E. ten bishops were executed for not taking part in the lighting of a pagan temple.

In 311, Rome recognized Christianity.

Byzantium and Arab rule

In 337, Constantine the Great established a new administrative division that made Crete a military base for the East Roman Empire.

W latach 823 - 961 wyspę zasiedlali Arabowie, by ustąpić bizantyjskiemu cesarzowi. Do XII w. wyspa przeżywa rozkwit. Podzielono kościół na rzymskokatolicki i prawosławny. Kreta przyjęła prawosławie.

period of Venetian rule

After the Fourth Crusade, Crete was promised a Venetian Count. It was a good point for commercial sea trips.

period of the rule of the Turks

In 1645 the conquest of the island by the Turks began. It was a matter of time how long the province managed to repel the enemy invasion. Ottoman power was concentrated in the ports. The Turks ruthlessly forced the Greeks to convert to Islam.

The inhabitants fought for freedom for about 200 years. New uprisings broke out every now and then. An example of the ruthlessness of the occupant is the year 1866. The Turkish army entered the monastery of Moni Arkadi, hiding about 1,000 women with children and about a hundred men. In an act of desperation, when there was no chance of rescue, the abbot and the insurgents blew themselves up.

Crete openly demanded help from Greece. As a result, in 1896, a fleet from Greek Piraeus came to support. The Turkish-Greek war broke out. Finally, at the turn of the 19th century, Crete regained independence.

period of World War II

The period of World War II was occupied by Germany and Italy. Occupation, torture, terror, and a famine - this is how you can describe the war years.

23 July 2020